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Find out here everything about Swimming backstroke.
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Face up in the water, alternately beat legs and strokes backward with forward thrusts.
Step by step
1-BODY POSITION: Face up, horizontal body and chin close to chest, with legs and trunk extended. Head remains motionless with ear at water level.
2-LEG ACTION: The leg kick is made upwards and without surfacing. Knees are flexed when kicking upwards and extended when kicking down.
3-LEG ACTION: Two phases, traction and recovery. In the first phase, arm enters the water with extended elbow and palm of hand out. When elbow is under water it starts to flex, while hand and arm continue to sink in the water.Then hand must approach thigh while starting to take impulse. In the recovery phase, arm is extended and relaxed in the air and when it reaches the vertical, shoulder rotates out to ease the entrance of hand with palm facing out.
4-BREATHING: Face is always out of the water. Breathing is voluntary.
5-COORDINATION: When arm is in the middle of the recovery, the other arm is in the middle of the impulse or traction. Swimmers use a sequence of six kicks to each arm cycle.
Completely extend arms in the air.
Sink hips too much
With eyes on an imaginary straight line to avoid turning.
BODY POSITION: The backstroke is the only style where body is face up. Position must be almost horizontal with chin close to chest, and legs and trunk extended. Head remains motionless, but relaxed so that the ear lobe is at water level.
LEG ACTION: The primary force is the kicking of the legs up and down, without surfacing. Knees flex when kicking upwards and extend when kicking down.
ARM ACTION: Two phases: traction and recovery phase. In the first one arms goes in the water with extended elbow and palms of hand facing out. When elbow is under the water elbow starts flexing while hand and arm continue to sink in the water. Then, hand must join the thigh while taking impulse. In the recovery phase, arms are extended and relaxed in the air, and when they reach the vertical, shoulder rotates out to ease the dip of the palms which are facing out.
BREATHING: In the backstroke, face is out of the water at all times. Swimmer may breath any time he needs to.
COORDINATION: When arm is in the middle of the recovery phase, the other arm is in the middle of the traction phase. Almost all swimmers use a rhythm of six kicks for each arm cycle.
Basic Muscles Explanation
The latissimus dorsi, meaning ‘broadest muscle of the back’, is the larger, flat, dorso-lateral muscle on the trunk, posterior to the arm, and partly covered by the trapezius on its median dorsal region. The major round is a small and rounded muscle located alongside the superior part of the latissimus dorsi. In the scapular zone the rhomboid and the trapezius are involved in their middle part. The trapezius is a long diamond-shaped muscle that descends from the neck to the middle of the back. The trapezius, in its middle zone, is the most involved in this type of exercise, it is located in the middle part of the back. The rhomboid is hidden under the trapezius.
Muscles & Joint Actions
From a muscular standpoint swimming develops strenght, endurance and flexibility in the upper and lower limbs. The traction we make in the water with our hands to thrust body forward involves the majority of our trunk muscles. The same happens to our legs, when flexing and extending our knees and heels, the muscle involvement is complete.
The benefits that come from the different syles of swimming are important especially in relation to the cardio-pulmonary development. They are ciclic movements that involve the whole body and this increases our blood flow everyplace. This is why we say that swimming is one of the most complete exercises.
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